## Operators and their usage

Operator | Name | Explanation | Examples |
---|---|---|---|

+ | Plus | Adds the two objects | 3 + 5 gives 8. ‘a’+’b’ gives ‘ab’. |

– | Minus | Either gives a negative number or gives the subtraction of one number from the other | -5.2 gives a negative number. 50 – 24 gives 26. |

* | Multiply | Gives the multiplication of the two numbers or returns the string repeated that many times. | 2 * 3 gives 6. ‘la’ * 3 gives ‘lalala’. |

** | Power | Returns x to the power of y | 3 ** 4 gives 81 (i.e. 3 of 3* 3 * 3 * 3) |

/ | Divide | Divide x by y | 4/3 gives 1 (division of integers gives an integer).4.0/3 or 4/3.0 gives 1.3333333333333333 |

// | Floor Division | Returns the floor of the quotient | 4 // 3.0 gives 1.0 |

% | Modulo | Returns the remainder of the division | 8%3 gives 2. 25.5%2.25 gives 1.5 |

<< | Left Shift | Shifts the bits of the number to the left by the number of bits specified. (Each number is represented in memory by bits or binary digits i.e. 0 and1) | 2 << 2 gives 8. – 2 is represented by 10 in bits. Left shifting by 2 bits gives 1000 which represents the decimal 8. |

>> | Right Shift | Shifts the bits of the number to the right by the number of bits specified. |
11 >> 1 gives 5 – 11 is represented in bits by 1011 which when right shifted by 1 bit gives 101 which is nothing but decimal 5. |

& | Bitwise AND | Bitwise AND of the 5 numbers | & 3 gives 1. |

| | Bit-wise OR | Bitwise OR of the numbers | 5 | 3 gives 7 |

^ | Bit-wise XOR | Bit-wise XOR | 5 ^ 3 gives 6 |

~ | Bit-wise invert | The bit-wise inversion of x is -(x+1) | ~5 gives -6. |

< | Less Than | Returns whether x is less than y. All comparison operators return 1 for true and 0 for false. This is equivalent to the special variables True and False respectively.Note the capitalization of these variables’ names. | 5 < 3 gives 0 (i.e. False) and 3 < 5 gives 1 (i.e. True). Comparisons can be chained arbitrarily: 3 < 5 < 7 gives True. |

> | Greater Than | Returns whether x is greater than y | > Greater Than Returns whether x is 5 < 3 returns True. If greater than y both operands are numbers, they are first converted to a common type. Otherwise, it always returns False. |

<= | Less Than or Equal To | Returns whether x is less than or equal to y | x = 3; y = 6; x <= y returns True. |

>= | Greater Than or Equal To | Returns whether x is greater than or equal to y | x = 4; y = 3; x >= 3 returns True. |

== | Equal To | Compares if the objects are equal | x = 2; y = 2; x== y returns True. x= ‘str’; y =’stR’; x == y returns False. x =’str’;y=’str’; x == y returns True. |

!= | Not Equal To | Compares if the objects are not equal | x = 2; y = 3; x!= y returns True. |

not | Boolean NOT | If x is True, it returns False. If x is False, it returns True. | x = True; not y returns False. |

and | Boolean AND | x and y returns False if x is False, else it returns evaluation of y | x = False; y =True; x and y returns False since x is False. In this case, Python will not evaluate y since it knows that the value of the expression will has to be false (since x is False). This is called short-circuit evaluation. |

or | Boolean OR | If x is True, it returns True, else it returns evaluation of y | x = True; y =False; x or y returns True. Short-circuit evaluation applies here as well. |

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